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culture

Author(s): 
TOSHIO YAMAGISHI AND NAOTO SUZUKI
日付: 
Wed, 2007-08-01
Abstract: 

The goal of this chapter is to offer an institutional approach to analyzing culture as a self-sustaining system of beliefs. Cultural psychologists examine the mutual constitution of the mind and culture (cf., Markus and Kitayama, 1991). For example, Kim and Markus (1999) argue that preferences shared by a majority of people in a culture come to constitute social norms for that culture, and that social norms in a culture are internalized as preferences. While agreeing with the idea of the mutual constitution of mind and culture, we argue in this chapter that this process is not a simple aggregation of individual preferences into social norms and subsequent internalization by individuals; rather, the process of mutual constitution of mind and culture is mediated by social institutions.

Author(s): 
Masahiko Aoki
日付: 
Mon, 2008-02-25
Abstract: 

This is a contribution to the Journal Symposium on Douglass North's book on Understanding the Process of Economic Change by Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. It tries to understand his dynamic theory as that of the belief-institution co-evolution process and applies contributions of recent theories of game and knowledge by Aumann and others to this understanding. It specifically identifies three different meanings of the word beliefs used by North to distinguish the roles of culture and political and economic entrepreneurs in institutional and economic change. It also suggests ways to apply the game theory to respond to his call for inter-disciplinary studies of institutional and economic change.

Author(s): 
Bram Cadsby, Yasuyo Hamaguchi, Toshiji Kawagoe, Elisabeth Maynes and Fei Song
日付: 
Wed, 2007-08-01
Abstract: 

To investigate the effects of gender and national culture on economic behavior, we compare all-male and all-female groups from Japan and Canada in the context of a threshold public goods game with a strong free-riding equilibrium and many socially efficient threshold equilibria. Females and Canadians exhibit higher levels of conformity when compared with males and Japanese, respectively. However, such symmetric group behavior translates into significantly tighter equilibrium convergence only for Canadian females. Canadians, particularly Canadian females, are more successful at providing the public good than Japanese. The results suggest that the prevalence of different notions of self-construal may affect behavior.