Language: 日本語 English

Toshio Yamagishi

Toshio Yamagishi

Research Category

Social psychology, experimental social science

Area of Interest

Psycho-institutional analysis, sociality of the mind, experimental social science

Recent Thoughts

I am planning experiments for the purpose of analyzing cultural differences in behavior and social axioms related to human nature and the functions of society, adopting a perspective of institutional adaptation. Despite the fact that the majority of “cultural differences of the mind” reported by cultural psychologists can be successfully replicated on a macro level (i.e. difference in equilibrium between cultures), analysis at the individual level shows absolutely no correlation between indices. Thus I am wondering which index should be used. This result seems to makes sense if you recall that institutions are macro variables, but it is difficult to choose indices that are suitable for use in actual experiments. For that reason, I have recently initiated a year-long research project in which I will have ordinary people participate repeatedly in various experiments. This project will place quite a burden on the young researchers on my team, but I believe that the rewards will be great as well.


  • Toshio Yamagishi & Midori Yamagishi 1994. Trust and commitment in the United States and Japan. Motivation and Emotion 18(2), 129-166.
  • Toshio Yamagishi, Satoshi Kanazawa, Rie Mashima, and Shigeru Terai 2005. Separating trust from cooperation in a dynamic relationship: Prisoner’s Dilemma with variable dependence. Rationality & Society 17(3), 275-308.
  • Toshio Yamagishi, Sigeru Terai, Toko Kiyonari, Nobuhiro Mifune, & Satoshi Kanazawa. 2007. The social exchange heuristic: Managing errors in social exchange. Rationality and Society 19(3),259-291

Recent/Ongoing Works

  • Toshio Yamagishi 2007. The social exchange heuristic: A psychological mechanism that makes a system of generalized exchange self-sustaining. Pp. 11-37 in Mark Radford, Susumu Ohnuma, and Toshio Yamagishi (Eds.), Cultural and ecological foundations of the mind. Hokkaido University Press.
  • Toshio Yamagishi and Naoto Suzuki In press. An institutional approach to culture. In Mark Schaller, Steven Heine, Ara Norenzayan, Toshio Yamagishi, and Tatsuya Kameda (Eds.), Evolution, culture and the human mind. Lawlence Ehlbaum.
  • Ko Kuwabara, Robb Willer, Michael Macy, Rie Mashima, Shigeru Terai, & Toshio Yamagishi 2007. Culture, identity, and structure in social exchange: A web-based trust experiment in the U.S. and Japan. Social Psychology Quarterly 70(4), 461-479.
  • Toshio Yamagishi, Hirofumi Hashimoto, & Joanna Schug. Preference vs. strategies as explanations for culture-specific behavior. Psychological Science. (In Press)
  • Mizuho Shinada, Toshio Yamagishi 2007. Punishing free riders: direct and indirect promotion of cooperation, Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(5) 330-339.
  • Toshio Yamagishi & Nobuhiro Mifune 2008. Does shared group membership promote atruism? Rationality and Society. 20(1):5-30.
  • Toshio Yamagishi, Nobuhiro Mifune, James H. Liu, & Joel Pauling. Exchanges of group-based favors: Ingroup bias in the prisoner’s dilemma game with minimal group in Japan and New Zealand. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. (In Press)
  • Chisato Takahashia, Toshio Yamagishi, Ja,es H. Liu, Feixue Wang, Yicheng Lin & Szihsien Yu. 2008. The intercultural trust paradigm: Studying joint cultural interaction and social exchange in real time over the Internet. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. (In Press)

Home Page


Hokkaido University