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VCASI公開研究会 『社会のルールについて』

2008年1月26日(土) 13時から18時
東京大学本郷キャンパス 経済学部3番教室
青木昌彦 (スタンフォード大学;VCASI主宰)
松井彰彦 (東京大学;VCASIフェロー)
川越敏司 (公立はこだて未来大学;VCASIフェロー)
山岸俊男 (北海道大学;VCASIフェロー)
瀧澤弘和 (多摩大学;VCASIフェロー)
橋本敬  (北陸先端科学技術大学院大学;VCASIフェロー)


●13:10-13:55 青木昌彦(比較制度分析)
1.社会的ルールの変化にかんする(1)デザインアプローチ、(2)内生的・均衡論的      アプローチ、(3)進化論的アプローチ、(4)本質論的アプローチ(Binmore, Aumann など)のサーベイ
2.Economic, Social and Political Exchanges のそれぞれをゲームの理論を言語として記述することを試みるならば、どういう異同があるか?

●13:55-14:40 松井彰彦(ゲーム理論、経済学)
"An Axiomatic Approach to a Theory of Man as a Creator of the World."
The present paper proposes a theory of man, wherein man constructs models of the world based on past experiences in social situations. The present theory considers experiences, or chunks of impressions, as primitives instead of an "objective" game, which is assumed to be given in the standard game theory. Agents construct models of the world based on direct and indirect experiences. Each model comprises a structural part and a factual part. The structural part is represented as a game, while the factual part is represented as a strategy profile of this game. In constructing a model, an agent might use certain axioms, for example, coherence, according to which the model should be able to explain his or her own experiences; conformity to a solution concept;and minimality with respect to some simplicity measure. A few applications are presented to demonstrate how this theory works.

●14:50-15:35 川越敏司(実験経済学)

●15:35-16:20 山岸俊男(社会心理学・実験社会科学)
In this paper we present a new framework for interpreting cultural differences in behavior which we call the psycho-institutional approach. According to this framework, individuals' behaviors are conceptualized as strategies adapted toward various incentive structures. Cultural differences in behavior are thus viewed as differences in the default adaptive strategies which individuals come to rely on in unclear situations. Using the pen choice experiment (Kim & Markus, 1999), we demonstrate through two studies that the East Asian "preference" for conformity is actually a default strategy to
avoid accrual of negative reputation. When the possibility for negative reputation in a given situation was clearly defined, cultural differences in the tendency for uniqueness and conformity disappeared. This approach carries important implications to psychologists who interpret cultural differences in behavior in terms of preferences, and can serve as a common framework branching out toward other disciplines in the social sciences.

●16:30-17:15 瀧澤弘和(経済学)
(3)ヒースのFollowing the Rulesで試みていることの評価.

●17:15-18:00 橋本敬(複雑系、進化言語学、知識科学)